Understanding Drone Motor Basic Principal Work, From A-Z

Understanding the specifications of the drone motor and how it works is vital for pilots and all UAV enthusiasts.

There will come a time when pilots will have to replace a burning motor, upgrade the drone’s motor, or build a drone from scratch.

This article seeks to help understand some of the concepts of drone motors, which can be applied to UAV or manned drone motors. So you can choose the best motor that suits your needs.

The choice of drone motor has a significant influence on the flight characteristics of the quadcopter.

A small selection of the number of variations in motor construction will significantly affect various factors, such as weight, power, and quadcopter power.

Powerful Drone Motor: Basic Structure

The critical principle of various types of brushed and brushless motors for drones is electromagnetism.

Both motor designs incorporate an electromagnet as a platform for converting electrical energy into kinetic energy.

When an electromagnet is electrically charged, a magnetic field is generated. Then this magnetic field is in contact with the permanent magnet in the motor.

The combined effect of attraction and repulsion of permanent electromagnets is applied in a rotation on the motor shaft. The main components of the quadcopter motor are divided into:

  1. Motor Stator. This component is the central part of the rotating motor system. The primary function of the stator component is to generate a magnetic field. The motor stator is divided into the stator core, the stator frame, and the stator winding.
  2. Motor Bell (rotor). This component is a rotating component of the drone’s motor. There will be 2 motors that rotate clockwise (CW) and 2 motors that rotate counterclockwise (CCW) in the quadcopter.
  3. That’s how the bell motor works; rotate clockwise or counterclockwise. The pilot configuration is the key to increasing the bell motor’s ability.
  4. Drone Motor Windings; The windings in motors are made of copper wires, which are shaped and laid in coils. Many people are generally wrapped around a soft iron magnetic core coated to form electricity.
  5. Bearings: The basic concept and how the bearings on the UAVsmotor work are very simple. Most objects, in general, have felt a roll. Scientifically, rolling is also considered better than sliding. When objects slide, the friction between them creates a force, which slows them down. The purpose of the bearing is electrical to support the rip, keep the air gap small, consistent and transfer the load from the shaft to the motor.
  6. Cooling System; Most UAV motors are designed using a centrifugal cooling system, along with cooling fins. However, the quadcopter motor is designed to prevent excessive heat build-up. It aims to prevent heat from damaging, controlling the speed of electronics and cable. High-end drone motors like the KDE10218XF-105 for heavy lift drone motors have an integrated centrifugal fan.
  7. Electronic Speed Controllers; The remote controller on the ground station sends a data signal to the drone flight controller. The signal is then forwarded to the ESC, then ends to the drone motor. Electronic speed control (ESC) is an electronic circuit. Its function is to control the speed of the motor. The ESC also has a motor reversal feature or a dynamic braking feature.
  8. ESC Updater; In general, drone manufacturers issue firmware updates within a certain period. This firmware update serves to bring new features or to fix bugs in the software. The ESC updater functions to receive, process, and distribute the firmware update.
  9. Propellers; The propellers function to propel the drone upwards by sending the air mass below it. The simple principle of a quadcopter propeller is to draw air in from the propeller and then push it out in the opposite direction.
drone motor
Unsplash/Soroush Karimi

How to choose a drone motor kit?

In the selection of the motor, you should know the total weight of the quadcopter. The calculation of the estimated weight of the drone is done by adding up the weight of all components.

You can get practical calculations through the drone motor size chart that can be found on the internet. But for a basic understanding, you need to know the principles and theory

The first component to know the size is the body frame. When you know the weight of the frame, you can calculate the exact size of the propeller.

Based on the weight and size of the propeller, you can determine the lift thrust and flight speed of the drone. Only then you can choose a quadcopter motor with the following parameters:

  1. Push to Weight Ratio. Of all the multirotor types, make sure that your drone’s motor can produce 50% more thrust than the drone’s weight.
  2. KV rating. KV rating is another essential reference of the motor. The KV rating means the resulting motor rpm in increments per volt.
  3. Motor Size. The wider and taller the motor, the more torque it can produce. The high stator has a large surface area to cut a larger magnetic field and reduce heat. At the same time, the wide stator has more copper volume, which makes the motor torque larger and more efficient.
  4. N and P in Motor. In principle, N and P are poles and magnets. Try checking a brushless motor, and you will find a specification code like 12N14P. The number before N means the number of electromagnets present in the stator. While the number before P means the number of permanent magnets on the bell.
  5. Voltage and Current Withdrawal. The battery voltage has a significant bearing on the motor. High voltage means the powerful drone motors rotate faster. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the amount of thrust produced by the motor and the amount of current to be drawn.
  6. Motor Movement. For best flight characteristics, you need a motor that moves both clockwise and counterclockwise.
principal drone works
Unsplash/Asael Peña

Best Drone Motor In The Market

The list of drone motors below can be found in some leading e-commerce. This list is just a few of the many motor options on the market.

Before buying, make sure you know what you are buying. Here is the list:

  1. Parrot ar drone 2.0 motor: good quality and very excellent, but the bad news is that only parrot drones can be used.
  2. Emax MT2213 935KV 2212 brushless motors: One of the most powerful brushless motors for quadcopter motors. The installation is relatively simple and easy.
  3. Coolplay motors: this one motor is made of plastic gears. The effect is a lightweight structure that seems durable yet stable.
  4. Holystone motors: these best brushless motors for drones are made with high-quality materials. Therefore, you can get the advantages of lightweight structure, durable, and not easily damaged.
  5. Yanshon motors: the material quality is outstanding. The best ability of this motor is that the heat is not too high. Though the efficiency of the motor running high and good.

Knowing the basic ins and outs of drone motors, you are expected to know, measure, and get the best motor for your favourite quadcopter. Or at least, you won’t be fooled by fraudulent sellers.

Source:

  • https://www.mydronelab.com/accessories/quadcopter-motors.html
  • https://www.getfpv.com/motors/what-is-a-drone-motor.html
  • https://robu.in/selecting-quadcopter-motor-a-detailed-guide-2021/
  • https://www.dronezon.com/learn-about-drones-quadcopters/how-drone-motors-esc-propulsion-systems-work/

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